Utilization of Chicken Eggshell Waste: A Potential Calcium Source for Incorporation into Vegetable Soup Mix

  • Karthikai Monisha K.P a Centre of Excellence in Nonthermal Processing, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management – Thanjavur (NIFTEM-T), Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India-613005
  • Suga priya T a Centre of Excellence in Nonthermal Processing, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management – Thanjavur (NIFTEM-T), Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India-613005
  • Dharini M a Centre of Excellence in Nonthermal Processing, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management – Thanjavur (NIFTEM-T), Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India-613005
  • Mahendran R a Centre of Excellence in Nonthermal Processing, National Institute of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management – Thanjavur (NIFTEM-T), Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India-613005
Keywords: Eggshells, Waste Utilization, Soup Mix, Value Addition, Vitamin D


Calcium, an important mineral in bones, is widely available in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) in eggshells. However, tonnes of eggshells have been wasted every year all around the globe. The current work was aimed at valorizing the eggshell waste and incorporating it as an alternative Ca source for calcium deficient people. Soup mixes (named 1-5) were formulated by varying the ratio of starch (4-12 g) and vegetables (2-10 g) along with the constant quantity of mushroom and eggshell powder. The formulated soup mix was assessed for physiochemical properties and proximate analysis. The results showed that the soup mix 4 with 4 g vegetables, 10 g corn starch, 1 g onion, and garlic, 2 g salt and sugar, 2 g mushroom, and 1 g eggshell powder was found similar to the commercial soup mix along with 3069.095 mg/kg calcium content which meets individuals' RDA requirement. The results suggest that the formulated soup mix can act as a proper preload for all individuals and is used as a supplement for commercial calcium foods. Further research is required to increase the soup's acceptability, its bioavailability, and shelf stability.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


F. Fayet-Moore, T. Cassettari, A. McConnell, J. Kim, P. Petocz, Australian children and adolescents who were drinkers of plain and flavored milk had the highest intakes of milk, total dairy, and calcium, Nutrition Research, 66 (2019) 68–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2019.03.001

M. Waheed, M.S. Butt, A. Shehzad, N.M. Adzahan, M.A. Shabbir, H.A. Rasul Suleria, R.M. Aadil, Eggshell calcium: A cheap alternative to expensive supplements, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 91 (2019) 219–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.07.021

L.R. Brun, M. Lupo, D.A. Delorenzi, V.E. Di Loreto, A. Rigalli, Chicken eggshell as suitable calcium source at home, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 64 (2013) 740-743. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2013.787399

L. Flammini, F. Martuzzi, V. Vivo, A. Ghirri, E. Salomi, E. Bignetti, E. Barocelli, Hake fish bone as a calcium source for efficient bone mineralization, International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 67 (2016) 265–273. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2016.1150434

S. Owuamanam, D. Cree, Progress of Bio-Calcium Carbonate Waste Eggshell and Seashell Fillers in Polymer Composites: A Review, Journal of composites science, 4 (2020) 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs4020070

M. Waheed, M. Yousaf, A. Shehzad, M. Inam-Ur-Raheem, M.K.I. Khan, M.R. Khan, N. Ahmad, Abdullah, R.M. Aadil, Channelling eggshell waste to valuable and utilizable products: A comprehensive review, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 106 (2020) 78–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.10.009

S. Aditya, J. Stephen, M. Radhakrishnan, Utilization of eggshell waste in calcium-fortified foods and other industrial applications: A review, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 115 (2021) 422–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2021.06.047

A.M. Kingori, A Review of the uses of poultry eggshells and shell membranes, International Journal of Poultry Science, 10 (2011) 908–912. https://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.908.912

B. Dolińska, M. Jelińska, B. Szulc-Musioł, F. Ryszka, Use of eggshells as a raw material for production of calcium preparations, Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 34 (2016) 313–317. https://doi.org/10.17221/59/2016-CJFS

D.A. Oliveira, P. Benelli, E.R. Amante, A literature review on adding value to solid residues: Egg shells, Journal of Cleaner Production, 46 (2013) 42–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.09.045

J. Bartter, H. Diffey, Y.H. Yeung, F. O’Leary, B. Häsler, W. Maulaga, R. Alders, Use of chicken eggshell to improve dietary calcium intake in rural sub-Saharan Africa, Maternal Child Nutrition, 14 (2018) 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12649

Y. Masuda, H. Hiramatsu, (2008) Bioavailability and Physiological Function of eggshells and eggshell membranes, John Wiley & Sons, Tokyo. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470181249.ch3

T. Farzana, S. Mohajan, T. Saha, M.N. Hossain, M.Z. Haque, Formulation and nutritional evaluation of a healthy vegetable soup powder supplemented with soy flour, mushroom, and moringa leaf, Food Science Nutrition, 5 (2017) 911–920. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.476

C.P. Abeysinghe, C.K. Illeperuma, Formulation of an MSG (Monosodium Glutamate) free instant vegetable soup mix, Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 34 (2006) 91–95. https://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v34i2.2087

A.M.H. Abdel-Haleem, A.A. Omran, Preparation of Dried Vegetarian Soup Supplemented with Some Legumes, Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5 (2014) 2274–2285. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2014.522241

H. Naghedi-Baghdar, M. Nematy, M.M. Kooshyar, A. Taghipour, S.A. Sajadi Tabassi, S. Shokri, R. Javan, S.M. Nazari, Effect of a functional food (vegetable soup) on blood rheology in patients with polycythemia, Avicenna Journal phytomedicine, 8 (2018) 389-398.

T. Hirasawa, N. Omi, I. Ezawa, Effect of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 and egg-shell calcium on bone metabolism in ovariectomized osteoporotic model rats, Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 19 (2001) 84–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007740170045

H.A. Bischoff, H.B. Stähelin, W. Dick, R. Akos, M. Knecht, C. Salis, M. Nebiker, R. Theiler, M. Pfeifer, B. Begerow, R.A. Lew, M. Conzelmann, Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: A randomized controlled trial, Journal Bone and Mineral Research, 18 (2003) 343–351. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.2.343

A.C. Ross, J.A.E. Manson, S.A. Abrams, J.F. Aloia, P.M. Brannon, S.K. Clinton, R.A. Durazo-Arvizu, J.C. Gallagher, R.L. Gallo, G. Jones, C.S. Kovacs, S.T. Mayne, C.J. Rosen, S.A. Shapses, 2011. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What clinicians need to know, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 111 (2011) 524-527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2011.01.004

M.D. Kalaras, R.B. Beelman, R.J. Elias, Effects of post-harvest pulsed UV light treatment of white button mushrooms (Agaricus Biporus) on vitamin D2 content and quality attributes, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60 (2012) 220–225. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf203825e

M.F. Holick, R.M. Biancuzzo, T.C. Chen, E.K. Klein, A.Young, D. Bibuld, R. Reitz, W. Salameh, A. Ameri, A.D. Tannenbaum, Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93 (2008) 677–681. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-2308

H. Barakat, V. Reim, S. Rohn, Stability of saponins from chickpea, soy and faba beans in vegetarian, broccoli-based bars subjected to different cooking techniques, Food Research International, 76 (2015) 142–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2015.03.043

R.R. Simon, K.M. Philips, R.L. Horst, I.C. Munro, Vitamin D mushrooms: Comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated post-harvest with UVB light or sunlight, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59 (2011) 8724–8732. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf201255b

P. Chantaro, R. Pongsawatmanit, Influence of sucrose on thermal and pasting properties of tapioca starch and xanthan gum mixtures, Journal of Food Engineering, 98 (2010) 44–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2009.12.006

C. Radha, B.S. Ogunsina, B.K.T. Hebina, some quality and micro-structural characteristics of soup enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seeds Flour, American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3 (2015) 145–149.

R.C. Kokani, S. Mokashi, Y. Pandurang Shelar, Studies on Development and Standardization of Moringa Leaves Instant Soup Mix Powder Incorporated with Garden Cress Seeds, International Journal of Research and Review, 6 (2019) 242–246.

Townshend, Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, Analytica Chimica Acta, 193 (1987) 400–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)86185-1

C.S. James, (1995) Experimental procedures-Estimation of major food constituents, Analytical Chemistry of Foods, New York, London, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-2165-5

Ł. Szeleszczuk, D.M. Pisklak, M. Kuras, I. Wawer, In vitro dissolution of calcium carbonate from the chicken eggshell: A study of calcium bioavailability, International Journal of Food Properties, 18 (2015) 2791–2799. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2015.1004587

Krejcova, T. Cernohorsky, D. Meixner, Elemental analysis of instant soups and seasoning mixtures by ICP – OES, Food Chemistry, 105 (2007) 242–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.005

N. Shanthini, S. Sasikala, K. Athmaselvi, Development and Evaluation of Instant Ridge Gourd Peel Soup Mix, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 10 (2018) 581–585. https://dx.doi.org/10.21817/ijet/2018/v10i2/181002102

J.W. Kim, S.S. Samant, Y. Seo, H.S. Seo, Variation in saltiness perception of soup with respect to soup serving temperature and consumer dietary habits, Appetite, 84 (2015) 73–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2014.09.018

S.M. Loveday, Food Proteins: Technological, Nutritional, and Sustainability Attributes of Traditional and Emerging Proteins, Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 10 (2019) 311–339. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-032818-121128

Michael Bockisch, (1998) The Importance of Fats, Fats and Oils Handbook, Academic Press and AOCS Press, 1–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-9818936-0-0.50006-8

Y.P. Tang, B.L.L. Linda, LW. Franz, Proximate analysis of Artocarpus odoratissimus (Tarap) in Brunei Darussalam, International Food Research Journal, 20 (2013) 409–415.

K. Kishor, H. Singh, S. Dey, Studies on cost of production for value added prepared mixed flour biscuit, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 5 (2017) 1904–1905.

Y.H. Chang, S.T. Lim, B. Yoo, Dynamic rheology of corn starch-sugar composites, Journal of Food Engineering, 64 (2004) 521–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.08.017

V. Singh, K. Kaur, Development, formulation and shelf life evaluation of baby corn soup mix from industrial by-products, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57 (2020) 1917–1925. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04227-1

F.Nasiri, T.B. Ghiassi, A. Bassiri, S. Hoseini, M. Aminafshar, Comparative Study on the Main Chemical Composition of Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Cap and Stipe, Journal of Food Biosciences and Technology, 3 (2013) 41–48.

H.W. Michael, G. Bultosa, L.M. Pant, Nutritional contents of three edible oyster mushrooms grown on two substrates at Haramaya, Ethiopia, and sensory properties of boiled mushroom and mushroom sauce, International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46 (2011) 732–738. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02543.x -

N.L. Uju, O.P. Obiakor, Nutritional Profile of Three Different Mushroom Varieties Consumed in Amaifeke, Orlu Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria, Food Science and Quality Management, 31 (2014) 70–78.

F.S. Reis, L. Barros, A. Martins, I.C.F.R. Ferreira, Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: An inter-species comparative study, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50 (2012) 191–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.10.056

D. Chatterjee, D. Halder, A. Mukherjee, S. Das, Evaluation of Mineral and Organic Composition of Mushroom Soup, Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences, 5 (2019) 480–485. https://doi.org/10.26479/2019.0501.41

A.Srivastava, B. Attri, S. Verma, (2019) Development and evaluation of instant soup premix using oyster mushroom powder, Mushroom Research, 28 (2019) 65-69. https://doi.org/10.36036/mr.28.1.2019.91960

A.M.A. Alsuhaibani, Rheological and Nutritional Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Bread Fortified with Natural Sources of Calcium, Journal Food Quality, (2018) 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8308361

A.G.M. Schulz, J.M.M. Van Amelsvoort, A.C. Beynen, Dietary Native Resistant Starch but Not Retrograded Resistant Starch Raises Magnesium and Calcium Absorption in Rats, The Journal of Nutrition, 123 (1993) 1724–1731. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/123.10.1724

T. Farzana, S. Mohajan, T. Saha, M.N. Hossain, Development of A Healthy Soup Powder Using Phytonutrient Enriched Mushroom-Moringa Leaf, DIU Journal of Allied Health Sciences, 3 (2016) 33–40.

How to Cite
K.P, K. M., T, S. priya, M, D., & R, M. (2022). Utilization of Chicken Eggshell Waste: A Potential Calcium Source for Incorporation into Vegetable Soup Mix. Frontiers in Advanced Materials Research, 4(2), 15-31. https://doi.org/10.34256/famr2223

Views: Abstract : 55 | PDF : 36

Plum Analytics